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Decorative Sagging

Decorative Sagging

Sagging

When the paint drips down from the top layer of application due to gravity resulting in uneven coverage, the defect is referred to as Sagging.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Diluting the paint more than recommended Thin the paint in a recommended ratio of dilution. Sand and smooth the surface perfectly before applying the paint
Applying a thick film of paint Apply few thin coats as recommended. Avoid applying one thick coat instead of a few thin coats. Allow the paint to harden perfectly after applying
Applying the paint on an ultra smooth surface If the surface shows sagging and the paint is fresh, spread the paint on the surface by using a brush or a roller. If the surface is sagging and the paint has become dry, sand the sagged surface and repaint
Fading- Poor Color Retention

Fading / Poor Color Retention

Fading / Poor Color Retention

When the surface is exposed to excessive light, fading can happen. Southern exposure is the direction of the sun and it is harsher. So surface with southern exposure fades faster and as a resulting in poor color retention. Poor colour retention can also occur due to the chalking or the disintegration of the painted surface.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Using low-quality paints. Painting exterior with paints that are supposed to be used for interior. Painting in certain colors that are more prone to fading like certain bright red, blue and yellow colors. The ultraviolet exposure on these colors makes them fade faster Remove the faded exterior completely by sanding
Painting masonry surfaces like stucco and concrete that are not cured properly. They result in a condition called “Alkali burn”. Tinting with white or light-colored paints that are not supposed to be used for tinting can make the surface look faded. Adding too much colorant to a light or medium paint base Repaint the entire surface using high-quality exterior paint and colors as recommended for the surface
Dirt Pick-up

Dirt Pick-up

Dirt Pick-up

When dirt, dust or other fine debris accumulates on the painted film, the defect is referred to as Dirt Pick-up. The dirt so picked-up might resemble mildew.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Using low-quality paints. Splashing of soil on the painted surface Paint with high-quality paints that are formulated with superior dirt pick-up resistant components
Air pollution and other air-borne dust collecting on the house’s painted surface Paint with high-gloss or sheen. They are more resistant to dirt pick-up than flat paints
Chalking

Chalking

Chalking

When the paint forms a fine powder on the surface and sticks on the person leaning, it is referred as Chalking. The phenomenon is primarily due to weathering.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Exposing the painted surface to moisture and sunlight for long years A chalked surface needs to be repainted
Not priming and sealing the porous surface before painting Prepare a clean surface
Using a low-quality paint or a non-recommended paint in exterior surfaces thinning the paint too much Repaint in appropriate weather condition
Applying or spreading the paint as a very thin layer Repaint in perfect thickness
Blistering

Decorative-Blistering

Blistering

When the painted surface lifts off and appear like a blister on the surface, it is referred as Blistering. A blistered surface will eventually peel off.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Painting on a surface that is too hot and gets direct sunlight Sand or scrap the blisters and remove the entire paint on the surface
Exposing the painted surface immediately to high humidity, rain or dew Coat all bare areas with a high-quality primer
Penetration of moisture through the interior walls of bathrooms, kitchen and laundry rooms where humidity is generally high Repaint the entire surface with a high-quality paint under desired temperature conditions
Poor Adhesion

Poor Adhesion

Poor Adhesion

When the paint film does not adhere to the surface and peels off it is termed as poor adhesion.

Possible Causes

Solutions

A very smooth, oily and greasy surface Prepare the surface thoroughly and properly
Failing to remove dust, rust and other particles from the surface Remove dust, rust and other particles from the surface
Not removing the previous glossy paint surface Sand the smooth, oily or greasy surface before painting. If the paint is peeling off, repaint the surface after preparing the surface thoroughly
Wrinkling

Wrinkling

Wrinkling

When the painted surface gives a wrinkled appearance with a rough texture, it is termed as Wrinkling. The phenomenon generally occurs as a skin on uncured paint surface.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Build up of thicker film Thin the paint in a recommended ratio of dilution. Apply few thin coats as recommended. Avoid applying one thick coat instead of few thin coats
The paint is more viscous in nature Ensure good ventilation and let the room temperature be as recommended for interior painting
Possible surface contaminants Avoid surface contaminations. If the wrinkling is moderate or minor, sand the top coat alone and apply paint keeping in mind all the recommendations. If the wrinkling is major, completely sand down to the surface and repaint the affected surface
Brush Marks

Brush Marks

Brush Marks

When applying paint to any surface, if the finish leaves a mesh-like pattern it is being referred as Brush Marks. The brush marks or such pattern can be either horizontal or vertical.

Possible Causes

Solutions

High consistency of the paint Sand the surface to get a smooth finish
Paint material drying faster Mix and thin the paint thoroughly as recommended so that the consistency is proper
Prevalence of high temperature in the surrounding Paint when the temperature is optimum and right as recommended
Poor workmanship Entrust painting to workman who are deliver quality result
Using poor quality brushes Use only good quality brushes. Use roller application after the brushing is done
Bitty Film Consistency

Bitty Film Consistency

Bitty Film Consistency

When you feel rough, gritty particles embedded in the paint film by your hand, it very well means the paint has developed a bitty film consistency.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Prevalence of a dusty atmosphere Do not paint when the atmospheric condition is dusty
Not filtering the material before use Filter the material before use
Using contaminated water for diluting the paint Use clear and quality water for diluting the paint
Keeping the paint open for longer time results in formation of skinning layer Allow the paint to harden and dry completely and then sand the surface smooth. Use a clean brush and paint
Storage Defect – Foul Smell

Storage Defect – Foul Smell

Storage Defect – Foul Smell

When microbes attack the organic matter present in the wet paint formulations, it starts giving a foul smell or bad odor. This defect more often happens in water-based paints.

Possible Causes

Prevention

Solutions

Storing paints for longer periods Store only till the shelf life as mentioned on the packing Discard the paint as recommended by the manufacturer
Storing the paint even after expiry of shelf life. This happens because the anti-microbial agents in the paint formulation become inactive after the shelf life Use the paint immediately after thinning
Thinning the paint with contaminated water Do not retain thinned paints for longer periods
High Viscosity-Gelling -Curdling

Storage Defect – High Viscosity / Gelling / Curdling

Storage Defect – High Viscosity / Gelling / Curdling

It is a condition of the paint where the viscosity of the liquid paint increases beyond a recommended point.

Possible Causes

Prevention

Solutions

Storing for long periods Store as per conditions recommended by the manufacturer Discard the paint if Gelling or Curdling has occurred
Using contaminated tools while handling the paint Do not use contaminated tools
Thinning the paint with solvents not recommended Thin the paints only with those types of thinners that are recommended by the manufacturer
Mixing different brands or types of paints that are essentially different in composition Do not mix different brands or types of paints
Settling-Vehicle Separation

Storage Defect – Settling / Vehicle Separation

Storage Defect – Settling / Vehicle Separation

When components like pigment and extenders used in paint formulations settle down at the bottom the defect is termed as Settling. Usually, when settling sets in and the settled components become hard and sticky, the paint cannot be re-dispersed.

Possible Causes

Prevention

Solutions

Storing for long periods Do not store the paint in warm places Stir the paint mechanically till it reaches a homogenous consistency as recommended by the manufacturer
Storing in a warmer place Do not store the paint for long durations after thinning Discard the paint if stirring does not produce favorable homogeneity and consistency as recommended
Thinning excessively which causes reduction in specific gravity and viscosity of the paint. This disables the quality of the pigment to remain in suspension and hence settles down Store the paints under conditions as laid out by the manufacturer
Thinning the paint with incompatible and non-recommended compounds Thin the paints only with those types of thinners that are recommended by the manufacturer
Dampness

Dampness

Dampness

The Dampness is the seepage of water and the resultant wet/humid conditions prevail on the wall. These are very conducive for the growth of fungal (interior surfaces) or algae (exterior surfaces). It is a problem that affects new and old houses alike if the cause is not addressed correctly. Dampness if not corrected, can also lead to blistering, discoloration, and paint peel off.

Checking Dampness

Hold your palm on the seeping cement surface to feel the dampness. Most times they are visible as water spots or marks.

Causes

Solutions

Poor Waterproofing Adopt better water-proofing solutions
Poor sealing of cement surface, Exterior cracks Adopt appropriate structural changes if the surface is damaged or dilapidated
Undulations

Undulations

Undulations

When the surface is not even and level, they are called Undulations. Surface leveling is an important factor in the overall quality of finish.

Checking Undulations

When the surface is viewed from a lower angle, Undulations are visible. The Undulations are more conspicuous on glossy surfaces.

Causes

Solutions

Minor structural imperfections Level using putty (Cement-base putty / Acrylic WP)
Major structural imperfections Level using POP, as desired, Select matt finishes when the undulations are very well visible
Higher Alkalinity

Higher Alkalinity

Higher Alkalinity

Paints can fail on the surface if they have higher alkalinity. The paints simply delaminate or strip off from the surface due to this high alkalinity

Measuring Alkalinity

Alkalinity level can be checked using a simple pH paper. A value between 1 and 6 is termed acidic and a value between 8 and 14 is termed alkaline.

Alkalinity Range

Solutions

Between pH values 8 and 9 Use any Primer
Between pH values 10 and 11 Use water-based Primers only
Between pH values 12 and 14 Wash the heavy alkaline surface with lime. Bring down the pH level to the recommended level first. Paint the surface based on its nature and its related recommendation
Algae & Fungus Growth

Algae & Fungus Growth

Algae & Fungus Growth

The growth of algae and fungus on the walls create spots on the walls. While the algal growth is greenish spots, the fungal growth is a characteristic black or reddish-brown spot. Algae grow mostly on the exterior walls because they need sunlight. Fungi grow more on the interior walls because they love dampness and they do not need sunlight.

Main Causes – Dampness and Vegetation around

Surface

Solutions – Step 1

Solutions – Step 2

Masonry Surface Clean the affected area with wire brush Filter the bio-wash prepared
Ascertain if the masonry surface has algal or fungal growth Apply a coat of this bio-wash on the affected surface with a brush
Prepare a Bio-wash with a mix of bleaching powder in 1 liter of water Allow the coat to dry for 2-4 hours
Use 5% bleaching power in case the growth is fungal or 10% in case of algal growth Clean the surface with water
Follow Solutions-Step 2 Paint the surface as recommended
Plastered Interior Walls Clean the affected area with Sanding procedure Lay waterproofing so that the prevailing dampness does not allow any algal or fungal growth to return
Prepare a Bio-wash with a mix of 5% bleaching powder in 1 liter of water
Follow Solutions-Step 2
Plastered Exterior Walls Clean the affected area with Sanding procedure
Prepare a Bio-wash with a mix of 10% bleaching powder in 1 liter of water
Follow Solutions-Step 2
Cracks on walls

Cracks on walls

Cracks on walls

A split on the surface of the wall is termed as Cracks. The cracks can be either on columns and beams or on the plaster laid. The cracks to column and beams are deeper than the cracks on the plaster. The plaster laid on both interior and exterior walls can develop cracks.

Surface

Causes

Solutions

Columns and Beams Rusting of steel inside the concrete Fill with recommended cement and sand mixture
Plastered Interior Walls Improper Curing and Temperature variations Use Putty, POP or any other crack filler. Fiber Glass Tape gives better result
Plastered Exterior Walls Improper Curing and Temperature variations Use white Cement, powdered putty, right mixture of cement and sand or compounds with silica. Do not use POP
Poor Adhesion to Substrate

Poor Adhesion to Substrate

Poor Adhesion to Substrate

When the paint film does not adhere to the substrate and peels off here and there, it is due to Poor Adhesion to the Surface.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Unclean surface Clean the surface with volatile solvent
Lifting of Primer or Sealer from the surface, an incompatible finish. The solvent in the finish coat practically lifts the primer from the surface Ensure to use recommended primer and finish coat together
Though the film will dry & have good appearance, primary adhesion has been ruined
Sanding the wood to a smoother consistency. This problem is rampant in hardwoods that have closer grains Use 120 grit sand papers for wood that have closer grains
Use 120-180 grit sand papers for softwoods and woods with open grains
Coming off of the stain along with the sealer Apply thin coat and wipe the stains off
Applying stains that are too heavy. After application either they were not wiped off or they did not dry Ensure that the stain is dry before applying sealer
Poor Adhesion Between Coats

Poor Adhesion Between Coats

Poor Adhesion Between Coats

When the paint film does not adhere to the intercoat and peels off here and there, it is due to Poor Adhesion on the intercoat.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Sealer and topcoat may not be recommended for use together Use only proper recommended system. (A total system is always recommended)
Primer surface may have picked up contamination Clean the surface first
Apply finish coat in recommended sequence
Stain not dry or excessive build-up of stain Dry thoroughly and wipe any excess stain if any
Sanding the sealer or primer too smooth Sand with 220-280 grit sand paper only
Drying of catalyzed finish for longer duration between sanding and recoating Check recoat instructions carefully
Poor Drying or Non-Drying

Poor Drying or Non-Drying

Poor Drying or Non-Drying

When the paint film does not dry properly it is due to conditions that has triggered poor drying.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Weather is humid Place the wood to be painted in heated drying room if possible
Weather is cold Maintain a temperature of a least 25 – 35 deg C. This temperature is desirable for normal drying
Surface is greasy, waxy or otherwise unclean Clean surface carefully with volatile solvents anddry completely before finishing
Failing to stir all pigmented finishes into proper suspension before application Stir the material thoroughly so that liquids and pigments are evenly dispersed
Non-compatibility of stains with clearcoats if the application is over a stained surface Use proper stain
Improper ventilation Provide better ventilation
Applying a heavy coat to fill rough wood may retard thorough drying Do not attempt to use finish coat as surfacer
Apply only as a normal wet coat. Ensure not to exceed 4-5 wet mils total film thickness
Bleeding/Leaching

Bleeding/Leaching

Bleeding/Leaching

When soluble dye from the substrate seeps through the topcoat the resultant defect is termed as Bleeding or Leaching. The defect may also be caused by Tannin, a kind of brown dye that bleeds from the timber when it is wet. Many hardwood timbers are affected by tannin leaching.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Not sealing properly the organic red, yellow, and orange colored stains Avoid red, yellow, and orange colors because they generally bleed
Use vinyl sealer to seal the lacquer topcoat. This can prevent bleeding
Check to see if the Japan colors (colors that are sacred in East Asia) do not contain any bleeding pigments or dyes
Certain wood with a natural resin inside called tannin bleed
Kwila (Merbau), Spotted Gum, Blackbutt, Balau and Tallowood are some of the wood types that bleed when exposed to rain without a sealant or coating
Wash the timber with deck washes and timber cleaners. In most cases this step reduces, rather than eliminating the tannin bleed
Tannin leaching can continue for months in timbers like Kwilaand Merbau because they have very high tannin content Seal with a barrier coat
Blistering

Wood-Blistering

Blistering

When bubbles are formed on the surface of a coating, caused by trapping air or vapors beneath the surface, the defect is termed as Blistering. It is mostly caused in areas where veneer does not adhere to. Blisters are figures resembling an uneven collection of rounded or blister-like bulges caused by the uneven contour of annual growth ring.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Drying of topcoat on surface before air can be released Reduce airflow across part
Reduce heat in the room
Retard drying of topcoat
Non drying of filler, glaze or wipe stain Dry filler, glaze or wipe stain completely before proceeding with topcoats
Using butyl cellosolve as a retarder can be a possible cause Butyl cellosolve is a heavy solvent. If too much is used, it will sink to the bottom of the film. If top of film skins over before complete film drying, then solvent pop can occur
Use optimal amount of butyl cellosolve as recommended
Blooming/Oil Blooming/Cottoning

Blooming/Oil Blooming/Cottoning

Blooming/Oil Blooming/Cottoning

When dull patches are formed on the painted surface, it is termed as Blooming or Cottoning.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Floating of oil from the wood or stain to the surface Use barrier coat to seal off the oil inside so that they do not escape to the surface
Coating over a glaze Allow longer drying time
Wiping stain or filler without adequately drying leaves a hazy appearance Applying a heavily retarded lacquer can sometimes remove bloom
Blushing

Blushing

Blushing

When the painted surface develops a dull white haze on top due improper curing and the humidity factor, it is termed as Blushing. They are more prominent in lacquer paints sprayed in humid conditions. Blushing is most often due to moisture/water vapor trapped in the film or to resin precipitating out.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Humidity is above 60% in the air
Damp spray rooms (generally concrete floors at ground level)
Add up to 16 fl. Oz. of retarder solvent in place of thinner
Spraying the paint when the condition is cold Warm the paint till its temperature reaches 20-30C.
Over-reduction Blushing caused by condensation of water and subsequent evaporation from cold spray rooms can be avoided by warming up the room
Close windows and bring the paint to room temperature
Bring the lacquer also to room temperature
Add retarder to thinner or use high quality thinner
Presence of moisture in the spray equipments Check airline for the presence of moisture
Ensure that the compressor has air cooler to prevent water condensation
Blocking/Printing/ Excessive Print

Blocking/Printing/ Excessive Print

Blocking/Printing/ Excessive Print

When two freshly painted surfaces stick together when pressed is termed as Blocking or Printing. It is basically a defect associated with adhesion.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Drying time is insufficient Allow for a longer air drying time
Application of heavier coats Apply lighter coats or reduce
Coating selection is not proper Check with your coatings supplier for recommended selection
Entrapment of solvent due to heavy film Apply lighter coats or multiple passes
Catalyzation is not proper Check with your coatings supplier for proper catalyst amount
Presence of catalyzed material beyond pot life Follow the pot life time as recommended by the manufacturer
Drying of catalyzed material in a cold environment which is less than 20°C (cold cure) Ensure drying environment’s is ata minimum temperature of 25°C
Brittleness

Brittleness

Brittleness

When the coating cracks on application of strength, it is termed as Brittleness.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Over catalyzing the paint Check the measurement of catalyst used. Shorter pot life is a good indicator
Baking of paint at higher temperature Check the recommendations published by the manufacturer
Paint is actually not formulated for wood Check for appropriate paint for wooden surface
Paints for metal surface are harder but lack elasticity properties formulated for wood paints
Checking or Crazing of Film

Checking or Crazing of Film

Checking or Crazing of Film

When the coating caries excessive weight, they cause cracks and checks in the film when aging in the first twelve months. This defect type it is termed as Checking or Crazing of Film. This defect is not usually associated with nitrocellulose lacquers. But is critical when acid catalyzed products like pre-catalyzed lacquers and catalyzed varnishes are used.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Applying heavy layers of coats Apply only sufficient material to complete full covering
Do not exceed a total thickness of 4 dry mils.
Mud cracking Occurs when latex is applied in excess film thickness or dries too quickly after application
Reduce application thickness to balance it
Cracking/Peeling

Cracking/Peeling

Cracking/Peeling

When the pain lifts from the underlying surface in the form of flakes, it is generally preceded by Cracking and will occur on different surfaces.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Excessive dry film thickness. This thickness is conspicuous with acid catalyzed materials Use wet film gage during application
Ensure not to have a dry film thickness of more than 4-5 mils with acid-catalyzed materials or pre-catalyzed lacquers
Cracking by repeated cycles of freezing and a return to room temperature Put a small piece of painted wood in a freezer for an hour and return the piece of painted wood to room temperature
Repeat this process 10 times and check if the paint is cracking
Paints are actually formulated to resist up to 10 cycles
Cracking of grain or veneer Cracks following the grains of the wood shows that the wood is actually cracking and not the paint
Cracking of exterior wood and plywood as it expands and contracts in response to temperature and humidity changes. This change is transmitted through the coating Scrape, sand, or scrub with a wire brush to remove all loose and peeling paint
Poor paint penetration on wood with excessive amount of “flat” hard grain pattern, which is smooth, hard, and nonporous Sand if needed to fresh wood
Poor surface preparation and/or applying too thin a coat of paint Do not allow the wood to weather prior to coating
Follow label and data page directions for surface preparation for giving the coat
Cratering

Cratering

Cratering

When the small depressions in a finish are formed it is referred to as Cratering. These small depressions are sometimes referred to as fisheye.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Usually caused by the contamination of silicone, wax or oil Find the source of contamination and eliminate it
Sanding aid on belts may contain silicone, lubricants, oils or greases for machines, belt-dressings, lubricating greases and oils, spray equipment, hand creams, or metal and wood polishes. These are possible source of contamination
Find their substitutes and eliminate the enlisted sources
Use anti-cratering additive.Note that silicone will continue to cause equipment contamination and hence higher amounts of additive will be needed
Darkening

Darkening

Darkening

When the wood appears with severe mildew but will not lighten when tested with bleach means they have undergone Darkening. Such darkening and decaying wood generally has a more solid, consistent appearance.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Exposure to UV (Ultraviolet Radiation)
Darkening takes place on wood that has never been coated with a protective coating (e.g. primer, paint or stain)
Do not expose new woods to weathering for extended time periods
Also occurs under clear varnishes and lightly pigmented stains Coat the new surface before installation or immediately after installation. To achieve best paint and stain performance
Darkening happens in different degrees on different woods Sand the wood to a fresh surface before priming for the entire wood surface that has been allowed to weather
Penetration of moisture into the wood causes varnish coatings to peel due to wood decomposition under the coating Discard the wood that cannot be sanded to fresh wood
Woods exposed to weather are not protected against wood-destroying organisms. Such exposed wood decays eventually and henceforth cannot be coated on its surface Allow the surface to dry if it is wet. Let it dry thoroughly prior to coating
Apply coatings to treated woods after the moisture content has dropped to a paintable level – usually 15% or below
Splash water on the surface to determine if the surface is waterproof. If the water is absorbed and the surface becomes noticeably darker, the surface is not waterproof. This test is especially recommended for pressure-treated wood and smooth cedar
Ensure proper penetration of the coating
Discoloration

Discoloration

Discoloration

When the slight dirt accumulates as a result of repeated soiling, discoloration of paint occurs. After that, a flattening stage develops when the coating gradually starts to chalk and erode away. Paint on the surface is sometimes discolored by mildew, blue stain, wood extractives and metals long before repainting is necessary.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Mildew – The most common cause for discoloration Ensure mildew is killed before repainting.
Use a bristle brush to scrub the painted surface with a mix of 1/3 cup household detergent, 1 quart (5 percent) sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) and 3 quarts warm water. This solution kills the mildew and cleans the area
Rinse the area to be repainted with fresh water after the surface becomes clean
Water-soluble extractives
The extractives dissolve and leach from the wood by water
The water moves to the paint surface evaporate and leave the extractives behind as a reddish-brown stain
Eliminate moisture problems to stop discoloration
Wash the discolored areas with a mild detergent immediately after the problem develops
Use paint cleaners if the stains are darker
Ferrous nails
Usage of standard ferrous nails on exterior siding and painting on them leaves a red-brown discoloration through the paint and the immediate vicinity of the nail head
Prevent rust stains by using high quality galvanized, stainless steel and aluminum nails. Do not use any standard ferrous nails
If chemical discoloration is not already sealed beneath a finishing system, an oxalic acid solution can be used to remove the discoloration
Apply several applications of an oxalic acid solution to the stained surface by using at least one pound of oxalic acid per gallon of water, preferably hot
Wash the surface with warm, fresh water to remove oxalic acid and any traces of the chemical causing the stain after the stains disappear
Drying Time

Drying Time

Drying Time

When optimum drying time is not enough due to the presence of various factors, this may cause defects.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Humidity factor / Humid Weather Use heat and wait for the humidity to settle down
Cold weather Ensure the drying area be at room temperature
Oily and unclean wood Clean wood by solvent wipes
Use barrier coat for oily wood as an alternative
Prolonging of drying due to oil stains Use non-oil based stains
No air movement Use proper ventilation
Trying to fill open grain wood with heavy coat of sealer actually traps the solvent in pore Use filler or high solids sealers like polyester or polyurethane to fill pore
Gloss Changes of Flat Spots

Gloss Changes of Flat Spots

Gloss Changes of Flat Spots

When the glossy finish changes the defect caused is referred as Gloss changes of Flat spots.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Not sealing the absorbent putty or filler causes the topcoat to “strike in” Seal the wood filler or the putty
Not using enough sealer or not sanding enough allowing topcoat to “strike through” Sand carefully. Give special attention to edges and corners while sanding
Changing of gloss observed on material from same container or Change observed after a few hours of spraying Stir material in the beginning to be sure it is uniform
Stir after several hours if highly pigmented or high amount of flattening agent was used. Sometimes this agent may cause settling in to occur quickly
Increasing in gloss with successive coats Sand to bringa smoother finish. With more coats the finish looks glossier
Hazing

Hazing

Hazing

When the finish changes to hazy and is not stark and as per standard it is termed Hazing.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Using incorrect thinner Use recommended thinners
Over catalyzing with acid Sand once again and recoat but make sure to test inter-coat adhesion
Blushing Check Solutions for Blushing
Mixing of water with paint due to the humid air Clean air line separator and bleed the line once every shift
Lack of Hiding

Lack of Hiding

Lack of Hiding

When the paint after drying fails to hide the underlying color or surface on which it has been applied, the defect is termed as Hiding.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Higher reduction of paint Add fresh and unreduced material to balance reduction
Application on very hot, smooth surface that tends to cause the finish to flow off Use a fast evaporating solvent
The slow evaporating solvent causing too much flow Use a fast evaporating solvent.
Pigment not properly stirred into suspension making it settle to the bottom Stir before using and check if the pigment is evenly distributed
Check for low film build
Edges of the surface show through Round the edges as they might be sharp
Improper atomization Adjust the spray equipment
No matching of the standard paint color. The base color is showing through topcoat. Basically low thickness Apply more paint to achieve full hiding with the spray gun
Color basecoat with same topcoat color for extra hiding
Make thicker film if the pigments used are organic as they have poor hiding character
Marring

Marring

Marring

When shiny patches appear when the painted surface is subjected to cleaning or brushing, the defect is termed as Marring.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Drying of pain film has not happened completely Allow more days for drying before cleaning or brushing the surface
No coalescing of the emulsion base is observed when the temperature is below 55F and the surface will also not cure Apply the paint at recommended temperature conditions
No curing of acid and polyester coatings at low temperatures Check the manufacturer’s recommended temperature range. Usually the paint takes 7 days to reach full hardness
Expiration of pot life Use within pot life or reactivate with fresh materials and catalysts
Formation of soft film Use recommended systems only. Check if mar-resistant additives can be of help
Do not use NC lacquer if a hard scratch resistant film is needed
Moisture Blistering and Peeling

Moisture Blistering and Peeling

Moisture Blistering and Peeling

When excessive moisture gets into wood that has been painted, the paint may blister and peel and this is referred to as Moisture Blistering and Peeling.

Possible Causes

Solutions

The first step in solving a moisture problem is to locate the source of the water causing the moisture problem.
The possible sources of troublesome water that can affect paint life on exterior wood surfaces are:
1.Outside water penetrating the wood
2.Inside liquid water soaking through the wood
3.Inside water vapor passing through walls, condensing, and soaking the wood
Treat exposed end grain and joints with a water-repellent preservative to minimize problems caused by water
Fill open joints, cracks, and holes with a high quality, paintable latex caulking compound
Pin-Holing or Bubbling

Pin-Holing or Bubbling

Pin-Holing or Bubbling

When tiny holes are produced on the finished surface often arising from the substrate, the defect is termed as Pin-Holing or Bubbling.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Atomized water in the air Clean the air separator and drain water from the line
Fine drops of moisture coming through the separator in the spray apparatus Clean spraying equipment and purge the separator
The open pore of wood has air trapped inside Use a thin wash coat to penetrate the pore
Production of fine bubbles after force drying Use lengthened and recommended flash time before drying
Basically reduce the heat in the drying room
Bubbling of carbon dioxide from polyurethane causes pin pricks to appear Happens when polyurethane reacts with moisture. Use retarder and apply thinner successive coats
Drafts causing surface drying and forcing the solvent to break through that surface film and evaporating to leave pin pricks Avoid drafts, reduce viscosity or retard dry the material
Trapping of air by heavily viscous paint Thin the paint
Heavy film Use thinner coats
Shrinking or Wrinkling

Shrinking or Wrinkling

Shrinking or Wrinkling

When uncured paint forms a skin and gives a wrinkled appearance, the defect is termed as Wrinkling.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Drying of the surface happens quickly but the underlying paint remains wet Avoid excessive heavy coats
Avoid force drying as this may cause wrinkling
Do not sand polyester primers soon if the surface is dry
Allow overnight curing of polyester primers before sanding
Softening of primer occurs when the solvent in top coat reacts Use compatible systems
An incompatible coating systems Follow recommendations as set by the manufacturer
Spots

Spots

Spots

Possible Causes

Solutions

Seeping of oil through the “separator” of spray line causing a brown spots Maintain cleanliness
Bleed the line once every 8 hours
Mixing of water with the lacquer either through the “separator” or by not having the surface dry can cause while spots to appear Clean airline and “separator”
Ensure surface to be finished is dry
Bleed the line once every 8 hours
Flattening paste not mixedthoroughly causing white spots Stir completely and strain if required
Drying turns spotty due to unclean surface. Surface having wax, silicone or grease Clean wood surface carefully with volatile solvent prior to coating
Temperature Blistering

Temperature Blistering

Temperature Blistering

When bubble-like swellings occur on the surface of the paint film as early as a few hours or as long as one or two days after painting, it is a defect commonly referred as Temperature Blisters.

Possible Causes

Solutions

When liquid thinners in fresh paint change to vapors after a thin, dry skin has formed on the outer surface of the film. Usually, oil-base paints blister this way Follow the sun around a building when painting to avoid temperature blistering
Dark paints absorb more heat and are more prone to temperature blistering than white paints Paint the north and east sides in the morning after the surface has been warmed and the south and west sides in the afternoon
Thick coats of paint are more likely to exhibit temperature blistering than thin coats If temperature blistering has formed, let the paint dry for a few days, scrape off the blisters, smooth the edges with sandpaper, and repaint the affected area
Yellowing

Yellowing

Yellowing

When yellow surface develops in aging paint which is particularly more pronounced in white coatings or clear varnishes is a defect termed as Yellowing.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Exposing the surface to Ultraviolet rays of the sunlight Use UV inhibitor in coating
Correct the paint if it is old
Aging can produce yellowish surface Use aliphatic polyurethane’s and acrylics as they yellow less
Keep in mind that NC lacquers, aromatic urethanes; oil drying alkyds conversion varnishes yellow more
Weight the choices available and then decide
Dirt or Seediness

Dirt or Seediness

Dirt or Seediness

When dust and dirt particles settle on the surface during the application of the paint, the condition is referred to as Dirt or Seediness.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Unclean conditions in the surrounding area.
Dust in the spray room or drying area
Dirt in air or paint line of spray apparatus
Sanding near the paint area can blow fine dust particles in the air
Maintain cleanliness in the paint area.
Rearrange equipment so that any spray dust from booths or other workshop areas does not reach finishing room
Check the presence of dirt and oil in the paint area by spraying air only from the spray gun on a white piece of clean cloth. After spraying look for the presence of any dirt or oil marks on the cloth
Improper thinning resulting in resin kick-out and rendering the resin incompatible as a result Thin the paint perfectly with the right recommended thinner
Paint has been subjected to extreme cold. System compatibility or solubility as a result has been reduced and has resulted in creating seeds Warm the paint to reach room temperature or 25 deg C. before applying
Consult your coatings supplier if the paint is still seedy
Dirt in the paint Strain paint before painting
Particles do not appear when spraying the wet film rather they begin to appear after the spraying is done Use a magnifier to rule out the possibility of air bubbles
Pour some paint on a glass surface and leave it to dry in a dust-free area. After it dries examine the glass by holding it near a light source for the presence of any dirt or dust particles
Excessive Material Usage

Excessive Material Usage

Excessive Material Usage

When the spray gun is not held as per recommended guidelines, defects begin to appear. These defects are a direct result of Excessive Material Usage.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Failing to trigger the gun at each stroke Release trigger after every stroke. Make it a habit
Holding the gun too far from the surface Hold the spray gun at a distance of 6-10 inches at right angle to the surface that needs to be painted
Work gun always at right angle to surface
Fluid pressure in the spray gun is too low Increase the fluid pressure
Check by cutting of air to the spray gun. Now hold the spray gun at shoulder height and now adjust the stream of paint to fall approximately 3 feet from the gun
Air pressure is too high in the spray gun Set the air-pressure low
Wrong air cap or fluid tip Use proper combination as recommended by the manufacturer’s guide
Depositing material film of irregular thickness Calculate the depth of wet finish film accurately. Learn out of experience
Excessive Spray

Excessive Spray – Fog/Dry

Excessive Spray – Fog/Dry

When the spray gun ejects conspicuously excessive paint not as per recommended guidelines, defects begin to appear. These defects are a direct result of Excessive Spray.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Using wrong solvent blend Choose a slower evaporating thinner
Atomizing air pressure too high Use necessary amount of compressed air only
Over reduction of material Use less reduction. Add fresh material to that which has already been over reduced
Holding the gun too far from the surface Hold the spray gun at a distance of 6-10 inches as recommended
Spraying past the surface of the product Release trigger as the gun passes the target
Wrong air cap or fluid tip Use proper combination as recommended by the manufacturer’s guide
Orange Peel

Orange Peel

Orange Peel

When the coated surface develops a kind of a finish that resembles an orange peel the defect is referred as Orange Peel. The coating does not smoothly, exhibiting the texture of an orange.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Thinning of paint not done properly Choose solvents that evaporate slowly. Use proper amount of thinners as recommended
Using poor grade thinner Use better grade of thinner for material
Failure to deposit a wet coat Check solvent
Use correct spread and overlapping of stroke
Material not thoroughly dissolved Mix material thoroughly
Presence of Drafts ((synthetics & lacquers) Eliminate excessive drafts
Presence of low humidity causing rapid dry conditions Raise humidity of room

Defect due to problem in the Spray Gun

Stroking is too rapid Stroke slowly and make deliberate slow spray passes
Air pressure is too low in the spray gun Increase atomizing pressure or reduce fluid pressure
Using wrong air cap Select correct air cap for the material and feed
Fluid pressure in the spray gun is high Decrease the fluid pressure
Holding the gun too far from the surface or too near to the surface. Hold the spray gun at a distance of 6-10 inches to the surface
Spraying is striking a wet and sprayed surface Do not overspray
Ensure not to spray on a surface that has been sprayed already
Spray detail parts first and end with wet coat
Air temperature is too high and hot Use retarder solvent to lower the temperature
Sagging

Sagging

Sagging

When the paint drops give a downward drooping appearance, the condition is referred as Sagging. This is the result produced when a heavier coat of paint is sprayed on a vertical, or a near vertical surface than the viscosity of the finish.

Possible Causes

Solutions

A slow over-reduction of solvent or by a solvent that evaporates too quickly Use solvents that areconsistent with the general nature and temperature of the surface to be coated
Application of coat is too heavy Control the coating applied to surface
Apply thinner recommended coats and get a firm paint build
Presence of draft condition Eliminate draft
Presence of strong sunlight causing top drying and consequently, late slipping of film on vertical surfaces Avoid application in strong sunlight
The weather is cold and there is no circulation of air Use faster evaporating reducing thinner or bring room temperature up to 25 deg C
Dirty air cap and fluid tip Remove cap and fluid tip and clean them thoroughly
Spray gun is held closer to the surface Hold the spray gun at a distance of 6-10 inches to the surface
Spray gun manipulated at wrong angle to surface Work spray gun at right angles to surface
Fluid pressure too high Reduce fluid pressure
Failure to release trigger at end of stroke. That is when stroke does not go beyond the object Release trigger after every stroke
Spray application is too slow Speed up movement of spray gun across surface
A fatty edge Spray the edges first with a thin coat. Then spray the rest of the surface
Improper atomization Use larger air cap (internal mix)
Increase volume of air through horns (external mix)
Spray Pattern Split

Spray Pattern Split

Spray Pattern Split

When the spray pattern is not proper, it may affect the performance of the spray gun during the application.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Imbalance in air and fluid Reduce width of spray pattern
Dirty air cap or fluid tip Remove and clean the tip thoroughly
Flow-or-Leveling

Flow or Leveling

Flow or Leveling

When the paint does not dry to a smooth film after application, it results in brush and roller marks on the surface. This condition is referred to as Flow or Leveling and is often unsightly.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Paint is too heavy Reduce the viscosity of the paint and make it perfect
Check for correct viscosity using Zahn #2 viscosity cup
Evaporation of solvent is faster Use solvents that evaporate slower if the air temperature is higher
Air atomization is improper Adjust the spray gun
Application of paint on the surface is too thin Apply paint to surface with more passes. Let the application be wet to wet immediately
Increase in air movement Reduce the draft
settling

Settling or Precipitation

Settling or Precipitation

When components settle down to become hard the defect is termed as Settling or Precipitation.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Using wrong thinners If settling is moderate, add proper solvent and agitate continuously till resolution. Use stronger solvents if need be
The Paint might be too cold Warm the paint till its temperature reaches 20-30C
Over-reduction Add more of fresh paint to bring back the consistency
Addition of reducer or catalyst is added quickly or stirring is not done sufficiently Add the reducer or catalyst slowly and stir constantly
Settling of pigment or flattening agent in the bottom Check the bottom of the paint with a spatula. Stir thoroughly before using the paint
viscosity

Viscosity or Heavy-bodied

Viscosity or Heavy-bodied

When the paint becomes thicker in consistency, it is termed as Viscosity. Since it is heavier, it is also termed as Heavy-bodied.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Evaporation of solvent in the paint at normal temperature causing it to become heavy-bodied Use the same solvent the manufacturer has used to make the paint. Additionally, check the viscosity with a cup manually
Using improper solvents for thinning Use recommended solvent for thinning purposes
Using catalyzed materials that may be beyond the shelf-life of the paint Look for directions. Look if it is mentioned that the paint can be recovered by adding additional paint and catalyst
skinning

Skinning or Gelling in Container

Skinning or Gelling in Container

When the paint develops a thin coat on the top or gels inside the container.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Air drying material is exposed to air because it is partially full Float thinner on the surface of the pail and seal it tight. Alternately put the content in new can and seal it tight
Material has gelled beyond a certain point Discard the paint as it cannot be recovered
Storing the product at high temperature, outside or has crossed its shelf-life Store the product inside at room temperature. Use before six months if the product is polyester, polyurethane, or pre-catalyzed lacquer
discoloration

Discoloration or Floating Particles

Discoloration or Floating Particles

When the paint comes in contact with floating particlesin the painting area, discoloration is a possibility. Discoloration can be caused by other reasons also.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Painting area has vapors or fumes present Check for the presence of ammonia or amine fumes from adhesives or any other sources
Reaction of aluminum and steel parts in the spray equipment with water-borne or acid cure Use stainless steel or solvent resistant plastic parts and liners in spray equipments
The pail lining comes off or the drum is improper Strain the paint through a cheese cloth or a fine filter. Ensure no contaminants are present in the filter
Presence of old nitrocellulose products Discard and use fresh material only. Because it can become amber on aging in the can and react with the steel
Chemical reaction to surface treatments Check pH of the surface. If the pH is in the acidic range, it can react with the alkaline materials
foaming

Foaming

Foaming

When foam is formed and it bubbles in the container, it is referred as Foaming.

Possible Causes

Solutions

Mixing rapidly Mix slowly. Ensure to not shake with mechanical shaker
Trapping of foam in the container Use the recommended de-foamer

Since 1962

Since 1922

Since 1945